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Immunization and Vaccination in Bronx, New York

In the realm of healthcare, immunization and vaccination are related concepts in disease prevention. However they slightly vary when it comes to the process of acquiring immunity against diseases. Here in NYCDocs in Bronx, NYC, we will provide you with all the information you need on vaccination and immunization.

Medicines and blood samples

Difference between Immunization and Vaccination: 

Immunization is a blanket term used to describe a process by which a person becomes immune or protected from a specific infectious disease. Immunization refers to the body’s natural response after recovering from an infection. The body naturally creates antibodies to counter the infection after coming into contact. This process can happen when they are vaccinated, or they come into contact with the actual disease. The body remembers the pathogen and lessens the severity of the disease. 

Vaccination refers to the act of getting a vaccine. The injection of a dead, weakened, or partial form of bacteria, virus, or any other microorganism or their toxins that cause diseases into the blood so as to make our bodies create antibodies to fight these pathogens is called vaccination. Vaccination triggers the body’s production of antibodies and activates an immune response to prepare itself to fight off specific diseases (without causing the disease) if it encounters the actual pathogen in future. Vaccines come in as injections, oral doses, nasal sprays etc. 

How long do immunization and vaccination take to work?

The immunization does not provide protection right away. Generally, it takes 1 to 3 weeks for your immune system to respond to a vaccine. This time depends on the vaccine, your age, and general health. Here is NYCDocs, we provide you all the info on immunization and vaccination in Bronx, NYC.

How long do immunization and vaccination last?

The effect of immunization and vaccination is not lifelong all the time. For example, tetanus vaccines can last 10 years. After that, depending on your age, you will need a booster dose to restore your immunity. Whooping Cough vaccine stays up to five years after a full course. Influenza immunization and vaccination is needed every year as the type of flu virus can change every year. 

What do vaccines do?

Vaccines play an essential role in preventing contagious diseases by training the immune system to recognize and counter viruses, bacteria or any other microorganism without causing the disease itself. When a vaccine is applied,

  • The body’s immune system recognizes the antigens as foreign substances, it responds by producing defensive barriers known as antibodies that are proteins that target and neutralize antigens and activate immune cells. 
  • Our immune system creates memory cells that remember the pathogen’s antigens and can later fight off. These memory cells remain in our body even after the immune response is lessened. 
  • If our immune system is attacked by the same microorganism, we will experience only a mild or less severe form of the disease, or not get sick at all.

What is in vaccines?

A vaccine can contain any of these listed below

  • A small dose of a live but weakened virus
  • A small dose of dead bacteria or its parts
  • A small dose of modified toxin produced by bacteria
  • Instructions for our immune system to fight a virus (e.g COVID-19)
  • A small amount of preservative or antibiotic to preserve the vaccine
  • A small amount of Aluminum salt that helps with producing better immune response

Types of Vaccination and immunization:

There are various types of immunization and vaccination depending on their components.

Live Attenuated Vaccines: These have weakened forms of pathogens and can typically cause a mild form of the disease. Measles, mumps, rebella (MMR), oral polio vaccine (OPV) etc are live attenuated vaccines.

Inactivated Vaccines: These contain killed versions of a pathogen. Since they are dead, they cannot cause the disease. Examples include Hepatitis A, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) etc.

Subunite, Recombinant and Conjugate Vaccines: These vaccines use protein or sugar parts of the pathogens to trigger an immune response. Hepatitis B, influenza vaccines are some of the examples.

mRNA Vaccines: These vaccines use RNA as a messenger to command cells to produce a protein that triggers an immune response. COVID-19 vaccines like Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are examples of mRNA vaccines.

Viral Vector Vaccines: These use a modified virus (not the one causing the disease) to deliver genetic material that accelerates an immune response. The Johnson and Johnson COVID-19 vaccine is a viral vector vaccine.

A person holding a vaccine

Vaccine Development Process

  • Exploratory age is when scientists research and identify potential antigens.
  • Preclinical stage is the testing on cells and animals to assess safety and immune response.
  • Clinical trials refers to testing on humans, generally including three phases to evaluate safety: dosage, effectiveness, and potential side-effects.
  • Regulatory review and approval is when government agencies review data and approve vaccines for public use.
  • The fifth stage is the large-scale manufacturing and distribution of approved vaccines.

Importance of immunization and vaccination

  • Vaccines prevent diseases that can cause severe illness, impairment, or even death. NYCDocs is always prepared to provide immunization and vaccination in Bronx, NYC. 
  • Immunization and vaccination have a positive impact on public health as it has eradicated smallpox and nearly annihilated diseases like polio in most parts of the world.
  • High immunization and vaccination rates in a region can prevent a contagious disease from spreading and protect even the individuals that are not vaccinated. This is called herd immunity. NYCDocs in Bronx will provide you the list of immunization and vaccination so you can avail our service and build up herd immunity.

Vaccine reactions and what to do

Serious reactions to vaccines are extremely rare. Usually, there are minor reactions such as short term redness, pain, swelling, and mild fever. If these occur, you can

  • Take paracetamol for fever and/or discomfort. Make sure you follow the instructions on the packet.
  • Consult a doctor if the reactions persist.
  • Seek emergency medical help in case of a serious reaction. Drop by at NYCDocs in Bronx, NYC and we will take care of you.

Challenges of immunization and vaccination: 

  • Some people are hesitant when it comes to receiving vaccines. They question a vaccine’s efficacy and safety, also the health issues that may arise with it. Immunization and vaccination in Bronx, NYC is supported by NYCDocs and we will certainly ensure your safety.
  • Access to vaccines can often be challenging to reach remote areas due to things like cost, infrastructure, and distribution networks. 

List of vaccines for children aged 4-18 years

  • Flu vaccine
  • Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis combination vaccines (DTaP, and Tdap)
  • Tetanus and diphtheria vaccine (Td)
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella combination vaccine (MMR)
  • Hepatitis A vaccine
  • Hepatitis B vaccine
  • Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine (Hib for children age-4)
  • Human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV)
  • Inactivated polio vaccine (for children through age 17)
  • Meningococcal vaccine
  • Pneumococcal vaccine 
  • Varicella vaccine

List of vaccines for adults:

  • Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combination vaccine (Tdap)
  • Tetanus and diphtheria vaccine (Td)
  • Flu vaccine (standard and high-dose flu vaccines)
  • Hepatitis A vaccine (for adults at risk)
  • Hepatitis B vaccine (for adults at risk)
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella combination vaccine (MMR)
  • Human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV, for adults through age 26)
  • Meningococcal vaccine (for adults at risk)
  • Pneumococcal vaccine

WHO’s Immunization Agenda 2030 

The World Health Organization (WHO) is working with countries to reach every area possible in order to ensure vaccination of the most common and deadly diseases. Immunization Agenda 2030 is an ambitious, overarching vision and target for world immunization for the decade 2021-2030. It was created by thousands of contributors from countries and national organizations around the world. It learns from the previous results and challenges and maneuvers its strategy and goals accordingly such as the case for Ebola virus, COVID-19 etc.


How many doses of vaccine do I need to be protected?

Ans. Most immunizations and vaccinations here in NYCDocs, in Bronx, NYC, are given multiple times to ensure a long lasting protection. If a person who has had 1 or 2 doses of DTPa vaccine, they are only partially protected against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Until and unless they get all the doses, they are still at risk of getting sick if they come in contact with these diseases. Meningococcal ACWY vaccine is an example of a vaccine that is strong even with only one dose. NYCDocs in Bronx, NYC ensure you get the full dosage for your complete protection.

Does immunization and vaccination protect everyone?

Ans. Immunization and vaccination protects most people. For example, 9 out of 10 kids will be protected with a flu vaccine. But 1 out of 10 can attract the disease but this is a rare case. However, since vaccines help most people counter a disease, it prevents that disease from spreading and also prevents it from turning into an epidemic.

Will I be immune to COVID-19 if I take COVID-19 vaccines?

Ans. You can receive the COVID-19 vaccine and still come into contact with the disease. But your illness will not be fatal and you will survive.

What is the Tdap immunization for?

Ans. The Tdap is a combination vaccine for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough) 

What is the hpv vaccine for?

Ans. The hpv vaccine is for human papillomavirus.